Thursday, May 3, 2012

Present Perfect

The present perfect simple expresses an action that is still going on or that stopped recently, but has an influence on the present. It puts emphasis on the result.

Form of Present Perfect

I / you / we / theyI have spoken.I have not spoken.Have I spoken?
he / she / itHe has spoken.He has not spoken.Has he spoken?
For irregular verbs, use the participle form (see list of irregular verbs, 3rd column). For regular verbs, just add ed.

Exceptions in Spelling when Adding ed

Exceptions in spelling when adding edExample
after a final e only add dlove – loved
final consonant after a short, stressed vowel
or l as final consonant after a vowel is doubled
admit – admitted
travel – travelled
final y after a consonant becomes ihurry – hurried

Use of Present Perfect

  • puts emphasis on the result
    Example: She has written five letters.
  • action that is still going on
    Example: School has not started yet.
  • action that stopped recently
    Example: She has cooked dinner.
  • finished action that has an influence on the present
    Example: I have lost my key.
  • action that has taken place once, never or several times before the moment of speaking
    Example: I have never been to Australia.

Signal Words of Present Perfect

  • already, ever, just, never, not yet, so far, till now, up to now

Exercises on Present Perfect

Tests on Present Perfect

Grammar in Texts

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